研究:焦慮的人 需要更多個人空間

bus-stop-391242_960_720

【台灣醒報記者陳正健、邱慕天綜合報導】每個人都有自己的個人空間,以保護私領域不受他人侵犯,然而,每個人所需要的個人空間大小又不一樣。根據倫敦大學學院的研究指出,容易感到焦慮的人,需要較大的個人空間,因為他們對於危險的警戒程度較高,患有「幽閉恐懼症」或是「廣場恐懼症」的人們,就是因為過度警覺,而害怕擁擠的人群。

倫敦大學學院神經科學研究員揚內蒂和她的研究團隊,邀訪了15名健康的自願者參與實驗,研究人員在他們的手裝上電擊裝置,並量測他們眨眼的肌肉反應。當手指離臉龐的距離較遠,手被電擊時,參與者的眨眼反應較小,可是當手指愈靠近臉寵,手被電擊時,眨眼的反應則較強。

眨眼是大腦皮層對外界刺激訊號,而產生的快速反射動作。實驗結果發現,當手愈靠近參與者下意識定義的個人空間時,他們眨眼的反應會突然急遽升高。而這個反應斷層區間出現的位置,在每個人身上都不同。

基本上,自認個性大剌剌和無憂無慮的人,在電擊位置靠臉很近時,才會出現劇烈緊張反應;而自認習慣緊張兮兮的人,只要手遭電擊的位置稍微靠近,就會啟動很強的眨眼反應。揚內蒂解釋,這表示一個焦慮的人,需要較為寬闊的個人空間,意即與外界變動的人事物保持較遠的距離,才能感到自在。

同樣在動物界,有所謂的「警戒距離」,對一隻斑馬而言,當其他動物逾越牠的「警戒距離」時,牠的求生反應會增強,以確保自己不受捕食或威脅,而焦慮程度愈高的斑馬,其「警戒距離」則愈大。

普林斯頓大學教授麥克.葛柴諾指出,「警戒距離」之於動物,有如個人空間之於人類,有警覺潛在威脅的作用,在過去,是有利人類生存,但是對於現代人而言,這項功能可能造成人類「過度警覺」,以致於發生「幽閉恐懼症」或是「廣場恐懼症」,這些患者害怕擁擠的人群,或對狹小封閉空間感到恐慌。

「個人空間也在人際關係上扮演重要角色。當我們信賴一個人,覺得跟他/她相處起來很舒服的時候,那個人容易進入我們的個人空間,反之,若是彼此信賴感較低,身體的距離也較遠。」揚內蒂說。

本研究刊登在《The Journal of Neuroscience》期刊。

圖說:研究指出,焦慮感較強的人,需要較大的個人空間。(photo by lauralewis23 on Flickr – used under Creative Commons license)

9 Comments

  1. Thanks designed for sharing such a nice thinking, paragraph is nice, thats
    why i have read it fully

  2. My partner and I stumbled over here by a different
    web page and thought I may as well check things out. I like
    what I see so i am just following you. Look forward to looking
    over your web page repeatedly.

  3. Heya fantastic blog! Does running a blog similar to this require a massive amount work?

    I’ve no knowledge of coding but I was hoping to start my own blog
    in the near future. Anyways, should you have any suggestions or tips for new blog owners please share.
    I know this is off topic however I just wanted to ask. Cheers!

  4. I am really impressed with your writing skills as well as with
    the layout on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you modify
    it yourself? Either way keep up the excellent quality writing, it’s rare to
    see a great blog like this one nowadays.

  5. Hello there, I discovered your site by way of Google at
    the same time as searching for a similar topic, your site
    got here up, it seems to be good. I’ve bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

    Hi there, simply become alert to your weblog through Google, and found that it is truly informative.
    I am going to watch out for brussels. I’ll be grateful for those who proceed this in future.
    Lots of people might be benefited from your writing. Cheers!

  6. I’m extremely impressed with your writing skills and also with the layout on your blog.
    Is this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself?
    Anyway keep up the excellent quality writing, it is rare to see a great blog like this one today.

  7. If some one wishes to be updated with most recent technologies then he must
    be pay a quick visit this website and be up to date everyday.

  8. You made some good points there. I looked on the internet to find out more about the issue and
    found most individuals will go along with your views on this website.

  9. I enjoy what you guys are usually up too. Such clever work and reporting!
    Keep up the amazing works guys I’ve added you guys to our blogroll.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.